## Who invented negamax?

J.P. Fishburn

Null windows, with β=α+1 in a negamax setting, were invented independently by J.P. Fishburn and used in an algorithm similar to SCOUT in an appendix to his Ph. D. thesis, in a parallel alpha-beta algorithm, and on the last subtree of a search tree root node.

## How does negamax work?

Negamax search is a variant form of minimax search that relies on the zero-sum property of a two-player game. This is a coding simplification over minimax, which requires that A selects the move with the maximum-valued successor while B selects the move with the minimum-valued successor. …

**How does MTD f work?**

MTD(f) calls the zero-window searches from the root of the tree. MTD(f) depends on a transposition table to perform efficiently. Zero-window searches hit a cut-off sooner than wide-window searches. They are therefore more efficient, but, in some sense, also less forgiving, than wide-window searches.

### What is minimax search procedure?

Minimax is a kind of backtracking algorithm that is used in decision making and game theory to find the optimal move for a player, assuming that your opponent also plays optimally. It is widely used in two player turn-based games such as Tic-Tac-Toe, Backgammon, Mancala, Chess, etc.

### How much does Alpha-Beta pruning help?

A chess program that searches four plies with an average of 36 branches per node evaluates more than one million terminal nodes. An optimal alpha-beta prune would eliminate all but about 2,000 terminal nodes, a reduction of 99.8%.

**What is minimax used for?**

Minimax (sometimes MinMax, MM or saddle point) is a decision rule used in artificial intelligence, decision theory, game theory, statistics, and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case (maximum loss) scenario. When dealing with gains, it is referred to as “maximin”—to maximize the minimum gain.

#### Is minimax a machine learning?

The minimax algorithm is not a machine learning technique.

#### What is the condition for alpha-beta pruning?

The main condition which required for alpha-beta pruning is: α>=β Key points about alpha-beta pruning: o The Max player will only update the value of alpha. o The Min player will only update the value of beta.

**Which one is correct Alpha Beta cut off pruning rule?**

The two-parameter can be defined as: Alpha: The best (highest-value) choice we have found so far at any point along the path of Maximizer. The initial value of alpha is -∞. Beta: The best (lowest-value) choice we have found so far at any point along the path of Minimizer.

## What is the advantage of alpha-beta pruning algorithm?

i) Alpha-beta pruning plays a great role in reducing the number of nodes which are found out by minimax algorithm. ii) When one chance or option is found at the minimum, it stops assessing a move. iii) This method also helps to improve the search procedure in an effective way.