What is well-to-wheel efficiency?

What is well-to-wheel efficiency?

Well-to-wheels efficiency is a combination (product) of well-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-wheels efficiencies. Well-to-vehicle efficiency is a product of all the efficiencies right from fuel extraction to transportation to supply to storing in a fuel tank of a vehicle.

What is well-to-wheel emissions?

Well-to-wheel emissions include all emissions related to fuel production, processing, distribution, and use. In the case of gasoline, emissions are produced while extracting petroleum from the earth, refining it, distributing the fuel to stations, and burning it in vehicles.

What is the well-to-wheel value of hydrogen FC HEV?

The well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas emissions of FCEV are calculated as 32,571 to 249,332 g-CO2 eq./GJ or 50.7 to 388.0 g-CO2 eq./km depending on the H2 production pathway.

What is well-to-tank emissions?

A Well-to-Tank emissions factor, also known as upstream or indirect emissions, is an average of all the GHG emissions released into the atmosphere from the production, processing and delivery of a fuel or energy vector. …

What is WtW and TTW?

T is for Tank-​​to-wheel (TTW) The generic term that subsumes Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank is Well-to-Wheel (WTW).

What is WtW CO2?

Well-to-Wheel (in short WtW) is the first step in comparing the efficiency of different solutions towards Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Those GHG emissions are so crucial to mitigate because simply put, they cause climate change.

What are tailpipe emissions?

‘Tailpipe’ emission standards specify the maximum amount of pollutants allowed in exhaust gases discharged from an internal combustion engine. Tailpipe emission standards were first introduced in California in 1959 to control CO and HC emissions from gasoline engines.

How efficient are hydrogen fuel cells?

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, which use electric motors, are much more energy efficient and use 40-60 percent of the fuel’s energy — corresponding to more than a 50% reduction in fuel consumption, compared to a conventional vehicle with a gasoline internal combustion engine.

How do you calculate the energy efficiency of an electric car?

We know that 1 Wh = 3600 J, so 90 Wh = 324,000 J. And the power plant efficiency, conversion and transmission losses in electricity in India are 70% or more. So an Indian electric car @ 90 Wh/km has an efficiency of 1/(3600 divided by (100% minus 70%)) x 10^6 x (1/90) km/Wh = 0.93 km/MJ.

What means tank-to-wheel?

The term Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) refers to a subrange in the energy chain of a vehicle that extends from the point at which energy is absorbed (charging point; fuel pump) to discharge (being on the move). The generic term that subsumes Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank is Well-to-Wheel (WTW).

What does the E stand for in CO2e?

Carbon dioxide equivalent
“Carbon dioxide equivalent” or “CO2e” is a term for describing different greenhouse gases in a common unit. For any quantity and type of greenhouse gas, CO2e signifies the amount of CO2 which would have the equivalent global warming impact.

What is WtW emissions?

What are the disadvantages of ethanol as a form of energy?

Hence, the ethanol reformate based FCEV proves to be less emissive for countries which uses fossil fuel based energy mixes for their electricity production. A major drawback of bio fuels in general and bio-ethanol in specific is the land usage.

Can Biobio-ethanol be used in fuel cells?

Bio-ethanol used in an ICE may lead to increased emission of acetaldehydes which however might not be the case if it is used in fuel cells. GHG emissions of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are compared with respect to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles.

Can WtW analysis be used to compare various vehicle–fuel combinations?

Several studies have been done based on WTW analysis for comparing various vehicle–fuel combinations.

How much do bio-ethanol-powered electric cars pollute the environment?

The results for the DEFC EV powered by bio-ethanol suggests that global GHG emissions would lie in the range 10.7–22% (barring ethanol from corn) of that of a BEV powered by the fossil fuel dominated energy mix of Germany.

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