What is the countercurrent exchange system in the kidney?
It is generally accepted that the microcirculation of the renal medulla functions as a countercurrent exchanger that traps NaCl and urea deposited to the interstitium by the loops of Henle and collecting ducts, respectively.
Do humans have countercurrent gas exchange?
Mammalian kidneys use countercurrent exchange to remove water from urine so the body can retain water used to move the nitrogenous waste products (see countercurrent multiplier).
Where does countercurrent exchange occur?
Venous blood recovers heat from the arterial blood as the former warms on its way back to the body. Blood vessels in the neck also employ a countercurrent arrangement and that results in a brain temperature about 1°C cooler than that of the body. (A countercurrent exchange of blood oxygen occurs in the gills of fish.)
What is counter current mechanism explain with diagram?
The countercurrent mechanism is the mechanism that allows for the production of concentrated urine. The Henle’s loop and vasa recta are the backbones of the mechanism. The flow of filtrate through the two limbs of Henle’s loop and blood through the two limbs of the vasa recta are in a countercurrent pattern.
What is the purpose of a countercurrent exchanger?
Countercurrent exchange in an U-type countercurrent exchanger may have two functions: (1) trapping of solutes within the system by transfer of solutes from the ascending to the descending limb and (2) preventing water from entering the system by short circuiting from the descending to the ascending limb.
What is meant by a counter current system?
A countercurrent mechanism system is a mechanism that expends energy to create a concentration gradient. It is found widely in nature and especially in mammalian organs.
What is nasal countercurrent mechanism?
The countercurrent heat exchange takes place in the nasal turbinates – a complicated system of narrow, convoluted passages, lined with membrane. During the inspiration, the cold dry air passes over the the nasal mucosa, absorbing heat and moisture from warm tissues before entering the lungs.
How are fish and human respiratory systems similar?
In a way, the Fish Respiratory system is similar to the human respiratory system. Fishes breathe through their gills, taking in dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. Their lungs(gills) are placed toward the side and to the back of the mouth. They also have an alternative lung, the bladder.
What is countercurrent exchange in biology?
A biological mechanism in which there is an exchange of a substance between fluids flowing in opposite directions.
What two functions does the countercurrent mechanism perform for the kidney?
Countercurrent multiplication in the kidneys is the process of using energy to generate an osmotic gradient that enables you to reabsorb water from the tubular fluid and produce concentrated urine.
What do you mean by counter current?
: a current flowing in a direction opposite that of another current.
Do humans use countercurrent heat exchange?
Many animals (including humans) have another way to conserve heat. As warm blood passes down the arteries, the blood gives up some of its heat to the colder blood returning from the extremities in these veins. Such a mechanism is called a countercurrent heat exchanger.
How does countercurrent exchange work in the kidney?
…by a process known as countercurrent exchange multiplication. The principle of this process is analogous to the physical principle applied in the conduction of hot exhaust gases past cold incoming gas so as to warm it and conserve heat. That exchange is a passive one, but in the kidney the…
What is countercurrent multiplication in the kidneys?
Countercurrent multiplication in the kidneys is the process of using energy to generate an osmotic gradient that enables you to reabsorb water from the tubular fluid and produce concentrated urine. This mechanism prevents you from producing litres and litres of dilute urine every day,…
What is a countercurrent mechanism system?
A countercurrent mechanism system is a mechanism that expends energy to create a concentration gradient. For example, it can refer to the process that is underlying the process of urine concentration, that is, the production of hyperosmotic urine by the mammalian kidney.
What is the countercurrent multiplier?
The countercurrent multiplier, or counter-current mechanism, is used by the nephrons of the human excretory system to concentrate urine in the kidneys.