What is BRAF mutation?
myoo-TAY-shun) A specific mutation (change) in the BRAF gene, which makes a protein that is involved in sending signals in cells and in cell growth. This BRAF gene mutation may be found in some types of cancer, including melanoma and colorectal cancer. It may increase the growth and spread of cancer cells.
What is BRAF vs RAF?
BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf. The gene is also referred to as proto-oncogene B-Raf and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, while the protein is more formally known as serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf.
How common is BRAF V600 mutation?
BRAF V600 mutations were detected in 41.8% of tested tumours, with an invalid rate of 1.3%. The mutation rate was more than 60% in patients aged less than 60 years and more than 36% in patients with stage III/IV disease.
How is BRAF activated?
BRAF is the most frequently mutated serine/threonine kinase in human cancers. Under physiological conditions, the RAF family is activated by binding to growth factor-stimulated RAS and signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK through a series of sequential phosphorylation and activation events.
How do BRAF inhibitors work?
The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib are used in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. They selectively target BRAF kinase and thus interfere with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway that regulates the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells.
How effective is Immunotherapy for melanoma?
In a small study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, scientists reported a 3-year overall survival rate of 63 percent among 94 patients treated with this combination of drugs. All of the patients had stage 3 or stage 4 melanoma that couldn’t be removed with surgery.
What does a positive BRAF test mean?
The BRAF gene mutation test result is positive (ie, a mutation is present) if V600E is found in the BRAF gene. V600E is the most common gene mutation for the BRAF gene and is the most common mutation tested for in clinical laboratories.