What are the characteristic and composition of wastewater from petroleum refineries?

What are the characteristic and composition of wastewater from petroleum refineries?

1.3. Characteristics of refinery wastewater

Unit Wastewater major pollutants
Crude desalting Free oil, ammonia, sulfides and suspended solids
Crude oil distillation Sulfides, ammonia, phenols, oil, chloride, mercaptans
Thermal cracking H2S, ammonia, phenols
Catalytic cracking Oil, sulfides, phenol, cyanide, ammonia

What is present in the effluent from refinery process?

Characteristics of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Petroleum refinery effluent has numerous amounts of complex substances present in it. They were present in the form of oil, gas, wax, grease, metals, minerals, hydrocarbons, etc.

How does oil refineries pollute water?

The main pollutants are sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons. The fresh water used by refineries in product cooling is returned to the original source of water containing crude oil, petroleum products, and mineral salts as contaminants.

What is the limit of oil in treated effluent from refineries?

Limit for quantity of effluent discharged (excluding blow-down from seawater cooling) shall be 400 m3/1000 tonne of crude processed.

How is wastewater produced?

Wastewater is the polluted form of water generated from rainwater runoff and human activities. It is also called sewage. It is typically categorized by the manner in which it is generated—specifically, as domestic sewage, industrial sewage, or storm sewage (stormwater).

What is wash water in refinery?

Wash water injection points are located in several areas of the refinery process. Injecting wash water into the crude oil scrubs the crude of salt and other solid particles that would cause corrosion and wear further in the system if not removed.

What type of pollution do refineries cause?

Air pollution hazards: Petroleum refineries are a major source of hazardous and toxic air pollutants such as BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene).

What impact do refineries have on the environment?

Although refineries are an important element within the U.S energy infrastructure, they also emit hazardous and toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which can be detrimental to the environment and human …

How is water used in oil refining?

The major use of water in a petroleum refinery is for cooling. Rela- tively small quantities of water are used for boiler feed, processing, sanitary services, fire protection, and miscellaneous purposes.

What is petroleum waste water?

Petroleum wastewater are a major source of aquatic environmental pollution and are wastewater originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil, manufacturing fuels and lubricants (Wake et al., 2005) and petrochemical intermediates (Harry et al., 1995).

What are the characteristics of wastewater?

The three main characteristics of wastewater are classified below.

  • Physical Characteristics. · Turbidity. · Color.
  • Chemical Characteristics due to Chemical Impurities. · Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) · Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
  • Biological Characteristics due to Contaminants. · Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

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