How do you calculate the rate of polymerization?
Divide the molecular weight of the polymer by the molecular weight of the monomer unit to calculate the degree of polymerization. If the molecular mass of tetrafluoroethylene is 120,000, its degree of polymerization is 120,000 / 100 = 1,200.
What is the average rate of polymerization?
What is average rate of polymerization? 2000 bp per second.
What affects rate of polymerization?
Rates of polymerization may be increasing either by raising the temperature or by increasing the concentration or activity of the catalyst.
What are the limitations of radical polymerization?
Some disadvantages related to the mechanism of free radical polymerization is the poor control of the molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution, and the difficulty (or even impossibility) of preparing well-defined copolymers or polymers with a predetermined functionality.
What will increase the rate of polymerization?
The result sums up the factors that control the growth rate for the polymer. The growth rate increases linearly with the concentration of monomer, and as the square root of the initiator concentration.
What is the average rate of polymerisation in E coli?
E. coli that has only 4.6 ×106 bp (compare it with human whose diploid content is 6.6 × 109 bp), completes the process of replication within 18 minutes; that means the average rate of polymerisation has to be approximately 2000 bp per second.
How do you slow down polymerization?
The rate of polymerization of vinyl monomers can be reduced or almost completely inhibited by the addition of relative small amounts of certain molecules, called retarders and inhibitors.
How does temperature affect the rate of polymerization?
If the temperature increased, we expect there to be more radicals generated in a shorter time frame, so the concentration of active centers will go up. Because rate of polymerization is directly correlated with concentration of radicals, the rate of polymerization will also go up with temperature.
How does raft polymerisation work?
RAFT is a type of living polymerization involving a conventional radical polymerization which is mediated by a RAFT agent. Monomers must be capable of radical polymerization. There are a number of steps in a RAFT polymerization: initiation, pre-equilibrium, re-initiation, main equilibrium, propagation and termination.
What is polymerization explain free radical chain polymerization?
Free-radical polymerization (FRP) is a method of polymerization, by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free-radical building blocks. A chain polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are radicals. Note: Usually, the growing chain end bears an unpaired electron.
What is the rate of polymerization in E coli?
coli has 4.6 x 106 bp and is replicated within 38 minutes. The rate of DNA polymerisation in this bacteria is approximately (1) 4000 bp/second (2) – 2000 bp/second (3) 1500 bp/second (4) 200 bp/second NAIA replication the molecules that act as.
How do you measure polymerization rate using dilatometry?
Dilatometry In this experiment the rate of polymerization will be measured by the use of dilatometry. Dilatometry utilizes the volume change that occurs upon polymerization to follow conversion versus time. The conversion is conveniently followed in a dilitometer whose volume includes a capillary region.
What is the effect of dilatometry on monomerization?
The polymerization of a liquid monomer is generally accompanied by a decrease in volume. Therefore dilatometry is a convenient indirect way of recording the progress of monomer conversion. As the equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive, the method has been widely used.
How is the rate of styrene polymerization determined by the initiator concentration?
Dilatometry is used to determine the rate of styrene polymerization and the effects of initiator concentration and chain transfer agent on the rate. Introduction Radical chain polymerization is a chain reaction consisting of a sequence of three steps: initiation, propagation, and termination.
What is the relationship between radical concentration and rate of polymerization?
The radical concentration can be expressed in terms of measurable quantities: The overall rate of polymerization (Rp) can be considered as the rate of disappearance of monomer with respect to time, -d[M]/dt. This depletion is due to both the initiator – monomer reaction and the propagation reaction: