Which of the following is a xenobiotic compound?
These compounds are mainly recalcitrant in nature. Other Xenobiotic Compounds: More number of pesticides consists of aliphatic, cyclic ring structures containing replacement of nitro-, sulphonate, methoxy-, amino and carbomyl groups in addition to halogen group. These modifications make them recalcitrant.
What are xenobiotics drugs?
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism. Xenobiotics may be grouped as carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, hydrocarbons, and pesticides.
What is not xenobiotic?
Xenobiotics are chemicals found but not produced in organisms or the environment. Some naturally occurring chemicals (endobiotics) become xenobiotics when present in the environment at excessive concentrations. The “xeno” in “xenobiotics” comes from the Greek word xenos meaning guest, friend, or foreigner.
Why DDT is called xenobiotics?
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis-(4′-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), the first of the chlorinated organic insecticides, is a widely distributed and persistent xenobiotic contaminant in the environment. DDT is not metabolized very rapidly by animals; instead, it is deposited and stored in the fatty tissues.
Is alcohol a xenobiotic?
Alcohol as a Xenobiotic Cytochrome P450 is inducible by chronic ethanol consumption and its activity is increased by three to five-fold in liver of alcoholics .
What is Bioactivation of xenobiotic compounds?
Describe briefly bioactivation. Formation of harmful or highly reactive metabolic from relatively inert/nontoxic chemical compounds is called bioactivation or toxication. The reactive metabolites primarily belong to three main categories—electrophiles, free radicals, and nucleophiles.
What are some examples of xenobiotics?
Xenobiotic is a term used to describe chemical substances that are foreign to animal life and thus includes such examples as plant constituents, drugs, pesticides, cosmetics, flavorings, fragrances, food additives, industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants.
Are vitamins xenobiotics?
Plasma proteins represent a storage site for many xenobiotics (e.g., salicylates, barbiturates, cardiac glycosides) and important physiologic constituents, including steroid hormones, vitamins, and various essential minerals.
Is caffeine a xenobiotic?
Caffeine is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in humans, acting as a stimulant, and has been employed as a convenient model xenobiotic in Drosophila research, where it is known to induce the expression of a number of P450 and GST genes in Drosophila S2 cells, larvae and adults [19–22].
Is coffee a xenobiotic?
Yes. Xenobiotics (ie. caffeine) affect liver enzymes and this starts the clock.
Are metals xenobiotics?
Throughout our life span, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury.
What is xenobiotic poison?
Toxicology and Human Environments Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of that organism. Without metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations.
What are the types of recalcitrant xenobiotics?
The recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds can be grouped into the following 6 types: (ii) Polychlorinated biphenyls, (iii) Synthetic polymers, (iv) Alkylbenzyl sulphonates, (vi) Others. The structural features that make these compounds resistant to microbial degradation include the following:
What are some examples of xenobiotic compounds?
Some xenobiotic compounds, e.g., cyclohexane, halogenated compounds etc., are degraded by microbes, but these compounds are rarely, if ever, used as sources of energy and carbon by them.
What are xfxenobiotic compounds?
Xenobiotic compounds are man-made chemicals that are present in the environment at unnaturally high concentrations. The xenobiotic compounds are either not produced naturally, or are produced at much lower concentrations than man.
What are the environmental effects of xenobiotics?
Xenobiotics such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trichloroethylene (TCE) accumulate in the environment due to their recalcitrant properties and have become an environmental concern due to their toxicity and accumulation.