What is the mechanism of action of antimalarial drugs?
Mechanism of Action: In Plasmodium falciparum quinine has been found to inhibit nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and glycolysis; it also binds with hemazoin in parasitized erythrocytes. Quinine is effective as a malarial suppressant and in control of overt clinical attacks.
What is the mechanism of action of quinine?
Mechanism of Action: The mechanism of action is interference with the parasite’s ability to digest haemoglobin. Quinine and quinidine also inhibit the spontaneous formation of beta-haematin (haemozoin or malaria pigment) which is a toxic product of the digestion of haemoglobin by parasites.
How does an anti malarial drug control malaria?
Drugs. Antimalarial drugs can also be used to prevent malaria. This is known as chemoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis kills the blood stage of the malaria parasite and consequently prevents the symptoms of the disease.
How are antimalarial drugs used?
Dosage – the dose is 100mg daily as a tablet or capsule. You should start the tablets 2 days before you travel and take them each day you’re in a risk area, and for 4 weeks after you return. Recommendations – not normally recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, but your GP will advise.
What is the pathogenesis of malaria?
Malarial infection begins when a person is bitten by an infected female anopheles mosquito and Plasmodium spp (species) parasites in the form of sporozoites are injected into the bloodstream. The sporozoites travel to the liver, multiplying asexually over the next 7–10 days. During this time there are no symptoms.
What is the action of chloroquine?
The major action of chloroquine is to inhibit the formation of hemozoin (Hz) from the heme released by the digestion of hemoglobin (Hb). The free heme then lyses membranes and leads to parasite death. Chloroquine resistance is due to a decreased accumulation of chloroquine in the food vacuole.
What is the mechanism of action of amiodarone?
After intravenous administration, amiodarone acts to relax smooth muscles that line vascular walls, decreases peripheral vascular resistance (afterload), and increases the cardiac index by a small amount. Administration by this route also decreases cardiac conduction, preventing and treating arrhythmias.
What are the advantages of antimalarial drugs?
Effective anti-malarial drug treatment reduces malaria transmission. This alone can reduce the incidence and prevalence of malaria, although the effects are greater in areas of low transmission where a greater proportion of the infectious reservoir is symptomatic and receives anti-malarial treatment.
What is the life cycle of malaria?
The malaria parasite life cycle involves two hosts. During a blood meal, a malaria-infected female Anopheles mosquito inoculates sporozoites into the human host . Sporozoites infect liver cells and mature into schizonts , which rupture and release merozoites . (Of note, in P.
What is the work of artemether?
Artemether and lumefantrine combination is used to treat acute, uncomplicated malaria in patients 2 months of age and older who weigh at least 5 kilograms (kg). It may be used to treat malaria infections in areas or regions where it is known that other medicines (eg, chloroquine) may not work.