What is the ligand for NKG2D?
NKG2D ligand structure and binding Human and mouse NKG2D ligands are structural homologs of MHC class I molecules. All ligands consist of two ectodomains that are distantly related to the α1 and α2 domains of the MHC class I protein.
What does NKG2D bind to?
The activating receptor NKG2D can directly bind to a diverse family of ligand molecules expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In NK cells, NKG2D interacts with either DAP10 (both human and mouse) or DAP12 (mouse only) and induces cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production.
What does NKG2D recognize?
NKG2D recognizes induced-self proteins from MIC and RAET1/ULBP families which appear on the surface of stressed, malignant transformed, and infected cells.
What is NKG2D receptor?
NKG2D is an activating receptor that is mostly expressed on cells of the cytotoxic arm of the immune system. Ligands of NKG2D are normally of low abundance, but can be induced in virtually any cell in response to stressors, such as infection and oncogenic transformation.
What does NKG2 stand for?
NKG2 also known as CD159 (Cluster of Differentiation 159) is a receptor for natural killer cells (NK cells). There are 7 NKG2 types: A, B, C, D, E, F and H. NKG2D is an activating receptor on the NK cell surface. NKG2A dimerizes with CD94 to make an inhibitory receptor (CD94/NKG2).
Do all NK cells express NKG2D?
NKG2D, encoded by Klrk1, is an activating cell surface receptor that is predominantly expressed on cytotoxic immune cells. NKG2D is abundantly present on all NK cells, NKT cells, and subsets of γδ T cells.
Do all NK cells express CD94?
CD94/NKG2 is a family of C-type lectin receptors which are expressed predominantly on the surface of NK cells and a subset of CD8+ T-lymphocyte. These receptors stimulate or inhibit cytotoxic activity of NK cells, therefore they are divided into activating and inhibitory receptors according to their function.
What is cd107?
Recently, lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 or CD107a) has been described as a marker of CD8+ T-cell degranulation following stimulation. Here we describe CD107a as a marker of NK cell functional activity using multi-parameter flow cytometry.
What is an NKG2D ligand?
Another related molecule identified by expression cloning as an NKG2D ligand is the minor histocompatibility antigen, H-60.
Can the NKG2D receptor be used to treat cancer?
Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity.
How do you activate NKG2D cells?
To enhance activation of T cells or NK cells, bispecific proteins targeting NKG2D ligands on tumor cells or activating NKG2D on effector cells have been developed. These bispecific proteins promote lysis of tumor cells through perforin-granzyme and secretion of effector cytokines.
How does the NKG2D monomer interact with mica?
Similar surfaces on each NKG2D monomer interact with distinct surfaces on either the a1 or a2 domains of MICA. The surfaces on MICA that contact NKG2D are analogous to those on MHC class I that bind to the aß-T cell receptor.