What is mixing of magma?
Magma mixing is the process by which two magmas meet, comingle, and form a magma of a composition somewhere between the two end-member magmas.
What are the major and minor processes responsible for magmatic differentiation?
Crystal fractionation. Mixing of 2 or more magmas. Assimilation/contamination of magmas by crustal rocks. Liquid Immiscibility.
Can a single parent magma produce various kinds of igneous rocks through magmatic differentiation?
These rocks may or may not be genetically related. A parental magma: Is a magma capable of producing all rocks belonging to an igneous rock series by differentiation. A primary magma: Is the “first melt” produced by partial melting within the mantle, and which has not yet undergone any differentiation.
What is magma assimilation?
Assimilation is the process whereby solid or fluid foreign material is incorporated into magma. The result is a contaminated magma and, on cooling, rocks that are referred to as being contaminated.
Why is magma mixing important?
Magma mixing probably is an important mechanism of compositional diversification (differentiation) of volcanic rocks from continental margin and possibly other environments. Textural evidence of the onset of magma mixing can be related to disturbance of a complex reservoir immediately before ascent and eruption.
What are the 3 classifications of magma?
There are three basic types of magma: basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic, each of which has a different mineral composition. All types of magma have a significant percentage of silicon dioxide.
What kind of magma can be formed as a result of magmatic differentiation?
The process of magmatic differentiation or geochemical evolution of magmas beneath the volcanic arcs results in the formation of relatively high-silica andesitic or rhyolitic magmas that solidify as low-density rocks.
What causes magmatic differentiation?
Magmatic differentiation can occur by the chemical reaction between the magma and the first crystals to solidify out of it, or by the physical separation of the first crystals that form from the remaining magma, either through settling to the bottom of a magma chamber or through crustal deformations that cause the …
What do Harker diagrams show?
A diagram that shows the amount of each of the chemical constituents of a rock as a proportion of the main ingredient (usually silica).
What is the process of creating one or more secondary magma from single parent magma?
Magmatic Differentiation • The process of creating one or more secondary magmas from single parent magma. A single melt can produce a wide variety of different igneous rocks.
How magma is formed?
Magma can also be created when hot, liquid rock intrudes into Earth’s cold crust. As the liquid rock solidifies, it loses its heat to the surrounding crust. This creates magma in places where it originally maintained a solid structure. Much like heat transfer, flux melting also occurs around subduction zones.
What are the 8 major elements found in magma?
Magma compositions vary, but will have eight main elements in different proportions. The most abundant elements are oxygen and silicon, followed by aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium. These eight elements are also the most abundant in Earth’s crust (Figure 7.2).
Are Harker diagrams worth the effort?
In the ex- ample, this is, of course, trivially known, but, in real complex applications, Harker diagrams are indeed a robust and cheap tool to assess similar origin and evolution of a magma suite.
Is the Harker variation diagram a mass action tool?
In particular, the use or abuse of the well-known Harker or other variation diagrams has been a strong point of disagreement between these two groups, because this tool can be understood under both contexts, i.e., as mass action (which is being criticized), and as mass balances (i.e., the Lever Rule).
How to calculate the proportion of evolved magma in a variation diagram?
(5) d1 (E, B) M In other words, for the particular case of a generic variation diagram (Fig. 1), the proportion between the fractionated extract and the proportion of evolved magma can be calculated, simply measuring the L1-norm lengths between A, B and E.
Why are petrological diagrams mis-conceived?
It will be shown here that the mis- conception begins with the erroneous attribution of these diagrams exclusively to be used in a mass action framework, and, more fundamentally, to the general fact that any interpretative petrological tool is meaningless without its geological context.