What is microbial fuel cell PDF?
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bioelectrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy present in organic or inorganic compounds into electric current by using microorganisms as the catalysts.
Who invented the microbial fuel cell?
In 1931, Barnett Cohen created microbial half fuel cells that, when connected in series, were capable of producing over 35 volts with only a current of 2 milliamps.
How are microbial fuel cells made?
6.22. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a new bioelectrochemical process that aims to produce electricity by using the electrons derived from biochemical reactions catalyzed by bacteria. In the cathode, the electrons are combined with oxygen and the protons diffused through a proton exchange membrane.
Why do microbial fuel cells require anaerobic bacteria?
However, when placed in an environment void of oxygen, cellular respiration will instead produce carbon dioxide, protons and electrons. It is therefore necessary to impart an anaerobic environment in the anode chamber of the MFC.
Where are microbial fuel cells used?
Maximum generated current and power in our fabricated stack of MFCs were 6447 mAm−2 and 2003 mWm−2, respectively. In addition to the use of organic substances, MFCs are used for the treatment of inorganic wastes. Sulfide is one of the most prevalent and hazardous ions and is found in wastewater.
What are the types of microbial fuel cells?
There are two types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs): mediator or mediator-less. The mediator type was demonstrated in the early 20th century and uses a mediator: a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode.
What microbes are used in microbial fuel cells?
Gram-negative microorganisms used in MFC are presented Bacillus violaceus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas methanica, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Methylovorus dichloromethanicum, Methylovorus mays, Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens.
How bioelectricity is produced?
Bioelectricity production involves generation of electricity by anaerobic digestion of organic substrates by microbes. The electrons released due to the microbial metabolism are captured to maintain a constant power density, without an effective carbon emission in the ecosystem.
What is the working principle of microbial fuel cell?
The working of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is based on the principle of redox reactions. The bacteria oxidize the organic matter to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), electrons, and protons. The natural metabolism of the microbes is utilized to generate electricity.
How efficient are microbial fuel cells?
Microbial fuel cells (MFC) allowed more than 99.9% of Fe removal (final pH of 7.7). Electrocoagulation using Fe electrodes efficiently removed Fe (>94%) after 60 min. MFC is more efficient than electrocoagulation to treat Fe-rich acid mine drainage.