What is LTD and LTP?
, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are cellular processes involved in learning and memory. Although they produce opposite effects on synaptic excitability, both LTP and LTD can occur at the same synapse in response to different patterns of activation of NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors.
Is transcription involved in LTP induction or maintenance?
However, it seems likely that ‘normal’ late-LTP utilizes a combination of transcription and local translation. One possibility is that transcription-dependent processes are normally involved in more general neural maintenance, while local translation serves as a mechanism by which synapse specificity can be achieved.
What is a difference between long-term potentiation LTP and long-term depression LTD )?
LTP is induced when neurotransmitter release occurs 5-15 ms before a back-propagating action potential, whereas LTD is induced when the stimulus occurs 5-15 ms after the back-propagating action potential.
What is LTP maintenance?
One of the earliest and most enduring correlations between the properties of memory and LTP is the evidence that both exhibit at least two phases of maintenance: a protein synthesis-independent early phase lasting a few hours and a longer lasting protein synthesis-dependent phase.
What is LTD psychology?
long-term depression (LTD) a long-lasting decrease in the amplitude of neuronal response due to persistent weak synaptic stimulation (in the case of the hippocampus) or strong synaptic stimulation (in the case of the cerebellum). Compare long-term potentiation.
What is LTD neuroscience?
Long-term depression (LTD) encompasses a family of synaptic plasticity mechanisms that can be triggered by the synaptic or pharmacological activation of glutamate receptors — in particular NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) — or receptors for other neurotransmitters.
How long does it take to induce LTP?
A standard protocol for inducing LTP using whole-cell recording is to pair low-frequency synaptic stimulation (100-200 pulses, 1-2 Hz) with a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse (1-3 min duration).
Is protein synthesis required for LTP?
A hallmark of long-lasting LTP is its requirement for new protein synthesis. One possibility is that local dendritic protein synthesis, involving translation in postsynaptic dendrites activated by synaptic stimulation, could provide the proteins necessary for expression of long-lasting forms of LTP.
Does LTD reverse LTP?
By contrast, postsynaptic (1-Hz evoked) LTP and LTD might reverse each other because they could act in opposite directions on the same glutamate receptors. However, neither 4-Hz nor cAMP-induced LTP can desaturate LTD, nor can LTD reverse those forms of LTP.
What causes synaptic depression?
Synaptic depression Synaptic fatigue or depression is usually attributed to the depletion of the readily releasable vesicles. Depression can also arise from post-synaptic processes and from feedback activation of presynaptic receptors.