What is CDC6 and Cdt1?
CDC6 is an ATP binding protein and a member of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) together with the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdt1 and the MCM complex (containing MCM2-7p). CDC6 assembles after ORC in an ATP dependent manner and is required for loading MCM proteins onto the DNA.
What is the role of the CDC6 in replication?
The CDC6 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is important in the copying of a cell’s DNA before the cell divides (a process known as DNA replication). The protein produced from this gene, called cell division cycle 6 or CDC6, is one of a group of proteins known as the pre-replication complex.
What phosphorylates CDC6?
Here we demonstrate that mammalian CDC6, an essential regulator of initiation of DNA replication, is phosphorylated by CDKs. Based on our data we suggest that the phosphorylation of CDC6 by Cyclin A/CDK2 is a negative regulatory event that could be implicated in preventing re-replication during S phase and G2.
Is CDC6 a transcription factor?
The human CDC6 gene is located at chromosome 17q21. 3 and its expression is controlled by the E2F family of transcription factors that regulate S-phase-promoting genes.
Is Cdc6 degraded?
Cdc6 is an unstable protein that is rapidly degraded at the G1 to S phase transition (Piatti et al., 1996; Drury et al., 1997; Sánchez et al., 1999) and that must be synthesized de novo in each cell cycle.
What is the function of geminin?
Geminin is a 25 kDa nuclear protein that functions by inhibiting DNA replication. During specific phases of the cell cycle, geminin is able to bind to Cdt1 protein and inhibits pre-RC formation.
What is the function of Geminin?
What is the function of Cdc6 during S phase?
Cdc6 is required for formation of pre-replication complexes during DNA replication. Phosphorylation of Cdc6 by S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases is the rate-limiting step for initiation of DNA replication.
What happens if Cdc6 Cannot be phosphorylated?
You create cells with a version of Cdc6 that cannot be phosphorylated and thus cannot be degraded.
How is geminin degraded?
Geminin is degraded as the cells exit from mitosis in synchronized Hela cells, then Geminin is absent during the G1 phase and accumulates during the S, G2, and M phases (McGarry and Kirschner, 1998).
What does geminin do in cell cycle?
Geminin is a central regulator of the process that inhibits re-replication. It interacts with Cdt1p and prevents the recruitment of the Mcm2–7p complex to origins during S, G2, and early M phases of the cell cycle and thereby inhibits replication initiation.
Does s CDK phosphorylate Cdc6?
In some cell types, Cdks phosphorylate Cdc6 and Orc1, leading to their ubiquitylation and degradation. Vertebrates use a protein called geminin as an alternative regulator of origin licensing by Cdt1 (Fig. 42.8).
Is deregulation of Cdc6 expression in human cells a carcinogen?
In addition, CDC6 overexpression in primary cells may promote DNA hyperreplication and induce a senescence response similar to that caused by oncogene activation. These findings indicate that deregulation of CDC6 expression in human cells poses a serious risk of carcinogenesis.
What is the function of Cdc6?
Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) is an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Its best-characterized function is the assembly of prereplicative complexes at origins of replication during the G 1 phase of the cell division cycle.
What is the role of Cdc6 in DNA replication in mammalian cells?
“Cdc6 is regulated by E2F and is essential for DNA replication in mammalian cells”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (7): 3603–8.
What is the role of Cdc6 overexpression and stabilization in cancer?
Only in special cases, CDC6 overexpression and stabilization may serve a physiological function, such as the polyploidization of megakaryoblastic cells ( 80 ). Because the retinoblastoma–E2F transcriptional pathway is frequently deregulated during cell transformation, genes like CDC6 and MCM2-7 are prone to be overexpressed in cancer cells.