What is a carotid cavernous fistula?
Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and/or its branches and a large vein called the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus is located behind the eye and receives blood from brain, orbit, and pituitary gland.
What structures are in the cavernous sinus?
The cavernous sinus comprises multiple trabeculated venous channels that contain portions of the ocular motor cranial nerves (cranial nerves three, four, and six), the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the internal carotid artery, and the ocular sympathetic nerves.
How is carotid cavernous fistula treated?
Treating a carotid cavernous fistula with embolization involves placing small platinum coils where the abnormal connection is. This separates the blood flow of the carotid arteries from that of the veins. As a result, the blood can drain properly from the eyes. Coil embolization is done in an angiography suite.
How is a carotid cavernous fistula diagnosed?
Carotid cavernous fistulas can be diagnosed by imaging studies such as: CT scan. MRI scan. Angiogram.
What is an aneurysm of AV fistula?
Arteriovenous fistula aneurysms are defined by an expansion of the intimal, medial and adventitial layers of the vessel wall to a diameter of more than 18 mm. Treatment of arteriovenous fistula aneurysm is indicated if there is pain, risk of haemorrhage and flow disturbance (either low or high flow).
What happens when fistula fails?
If your AV fistula malfunctions or fails due to the presence of blood clots, your doctors may suggest certain medications depending on the severity of the clots. Some medications can help thin the blood and dissolve blood clots so that the fistula can function again properly.
Is cavernous sinus A plexus?
The cavernous sinus is made up of very thin walled veins that make up a venous plexus. The cavernous sinus receives venous blood from the following: Superior middle cerebral vein. Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins.
What are causes of carotid artery dissection?
An injury to the neck can cause carotid dissection. The injury may be caused by something like a car accident. Some people with diseases that are known to weaken arterial walls are at greater risk for a dissection. A carotid dissection can also occur suddenly, without a known cause.
What are the complications of carotid artery surgery?
Risks and potential complications of carotid surgery include: Negative reaction to the anesthesia used during surgery. Bleeding or infection at the surgery site. Blood clots or bleeding in the brain. Stroke, seizures, or brain damage (rare) Heart attack. Injury to nerves, esophagus or trachea (windpipe) Plaque building up again in the arteries.
What causes a blockage in the carotid artery?
The key is to recognize the risk factors that will increase the possibility of your carotid artery being blocked. These are the same factors that are involved in heart disease and include high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity and high cholesterol.
Can carotid artery dissection be cured?
Many times the carotid dissection cures/heals itself without residual symptoms. As the dissection heals and scars, it “cures” itself. When it occurs acutely, it may need to treated with carotid stenting or some other type of interventional radiology procedure.