What are the two common features of equine influenza?
Equine influenza has high morbidity (outbreaks) but low mortality, and it is clinically characterized by fever, conjunctivitis, and serous nasal discharge. It occurs mainly in 2- to 3-year-old horses at the racetrack.
How does the contamination of the eye lead to upper respiratory infection?
Adenoviruses are a common cause of colds and respiratory infections too. Your body’s mucous membrane connects your lungs, nose, throat, tear ducts, and conjunctiva, a thin membrane lining your eye and eyelid. This creates an easy passageway for the virus to spread from your eye to your respiratory system.
What is the causative agent of equine influenza?
Equine influenza is mainly caused by two subtypes of influenza A viruses namely H7N7 (first isolated in the year 1956) and H3N8 (first isolated in the year 1963; Sovinova et al., 1958; Waddel et al., 1963).
How is equine influenza treated?
There is no specific treatment for equine influenza, with many horses needing mostly supportive and nursing care. Sometimes there is a secondary bacterial infection which can need further treatment. Your horse will need a minimum of six weeks rest to recover and your vet will advise you on this.
What is equine viral arteritis?
Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease in horses caused by Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). Infection can go undetected by horse owners/breeders and in herds that were previously unexposed (naïve) abortion rates in pregnant mares can reach up to 70%.
What does equine influenza do to horses?
Horses with influenza may have a fever, nasal discharge, lethargy, loss of appetite, and weakness, but most notably COUGH. Because coughing horses aerosolize the virus, equine influenza is very contagious. Horses who are exposed will become sick within 1-3 days.
What are the symptoms of viral conjunctivitis?
Symptoms of conjunctivitis (pink eye) can include
- Pink or red color in the white of the eye(s)
- Swelling of the conjunctiva (the thin layer that lines the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelid) and/or eyelids.
- Increased tear production.
- Feeling like a foreign body is in the eye(s) or an urge to rub the eye(s)
What virus causes viral conjunctivitis?
Viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious acute conjunctival infection usually caused by an adenovirus. Symptoms include irritation, photophobia, and watery discharge. Diagnosis is clinical; sometimes viral cultures or immunodiagnostic testing is indicated.
How serious is equine influenza?
Severity: Moderate It is very rare that equine influenza infection would result in a fatal outcome, however horses can be out of performance for 3 weeks and up to 6 months.
How common is equine viral arteritis?
The prevalence of infection varies widely both between countries and among breeds in the same country. It is frequently highest in Standardbreds and Warmbloods. Despite the widespread global distribution of EAV, laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of equine viral arteritis (EVA) are relatively uncommon.
Is there a vaccine for equine viral arteritis?
There is a vaccine available that has been shown to prevent infection with EAV. Vaccination should be performed at least 21 days prior to the start of breeding season to provide adequate levels of immunity. EVA has not been shown to be zoonotic.