## What are forecasting models?

Quantitative forecasting models are used to forecast future data as a function of past data. They are appropriate to use when past numerical data is available and when it is reasonable to assume that some of the patterns in the data are expected to continue into the future.

**Why is MAPE important?**

Many organizations focus primarily on the MAPE when assessing forecast accuracy. Most people are comfortable thinking in percentage terms, making the MAPE easy to interpret. It can also convey information when you don’t know the item’s demand volume.

### How is MAPE Forecasting calculated?

This is a simple but Intuitive Method to calculate MAPE.

- Add all the absolute errors across all items, call this A.
- Add all the actual (or forecast) quantities across all items, call this B.
- Divide A by B.
- MAPE is the Sum of all Errors divided by the sum of Actual (or forecast)

**What are the four main components of a time series?**

These four components are:

- Secular trend, which describe the movement along the term;
- Seasonal variations, which represent seasonal changes;
- Cyclical fluctuations, which correspond to periodical but not seasonal variations;
- Irregular variations, which are other nonrandom sources of variations of series.

#### What is Arima model?

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model. An ARIMA model is a class of statistical models for analyzing and forecasting time series data. The use of differencing of raw observations (e.g. subtracting an observation from an observation at the previous time step) in order to make the time series stationary.

**Which time series model is more common and why?**

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) ARIMA happens to be one of the most used algorithms in Time Series forecasting. While other models describe the trend and seasonality of the data points, ARIMA aims to explain the autocorrelation between the data points.

## How can you improve the accuracy of a time series?

Making accurate forecasting is critical for many decision makers. Various time series forecasting methods exist which use linear and nonlinear models separately or combination of both. Studies show that combining of linear and nonlinear models can be effective to improve forecasting performance.

**What is the best time series model?**

As for exponential smoothing, also ARIMA models are among the most widely used approaches for time series forecasting. The name is an acronym for AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average. In an AutoRegressive model the forecasts correspond to a linear combination of past values of the variable.

### What are the factors affecting the accuracy of forecast?

Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Analysts’ Forecasts Others concentrated on a firm’s operating environment, political connections, information technology (IT) capability, audit quality, and customer satisfaction and how the elements of financial statements affect the forecast accuracy of financial analysts.

**What is a good RMSE?**

Based on a rule of thumb, it can be said that RMSE values between 0.2 and 0.5 shows that the model can relatively predict the data accurately. In addition, Adjusted R-squared more than 0.75 is a very good value for showing the accuracy. In some cases, Adjusted R-squared of 0.4 or more is acceptable as well.

#### What are advantages of forecasting?

Forecasting can give you the intelligence to anticipate a downturn in sales and plan for it. Likewise, it can alert you to periods when you can expect an increase in sales and you can organise additional staffing ahead of time. If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.

**What are the types of time series?**

An observed time series can be decomposed into three components: the trend (long term direction), the seasonal (systematic, calendar related movements) and the irregular (unsystematic, short term fluctuations). WHAT ARE STOCK AND FLOW SERIES? Time series can be classified into two different types: stock and flow.

## How do you evaluate an Arima model?

1. Evaluate ARIMA Model

- Split the dataset into training and test sets.
- Walk the time steps in the test dataset. Train an ARIMA model. Make a one-step prediction. Store prediction; get and store actual observation.
- Calculate error score for predictions compared to expected values.

**What is MAPE value?**

The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is the mean or average of the absolute percentage errors of forecasts. Error is defined as actual or observed value minus the forecasted value. Percentage errors are summed without regard to sign to compute MAPE.

### What are the features of forecasting?

Features of Forecasting

- Involves future events. Forecasts are created to predict the future, making them important for planning.
- Based on past and present events. Forecasts are based on opinions, intuition, guesses, as well as on facts, figures, and other relevant data.
- Uses forecasting techniques.

**How do you evaluate a time series model?**

Walk-forward validation is a realistic way to evaluate time series forecast models as one would expect models to be updated as new observations are made available. Finally, forecasts will be evaluated using root mean squared error or RMSE.