What are effectors of the humoral immune system?
Effector functions of antibodies include neutralization of toxins and viruses as well as complement activation, but also functions that require the interaction of antibodies with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) on cells, thus initiating intracellular signal transduction by protein phosphorylation cascades.
What are the four effector mechanisms?
neutralization, cytolytic, immune complex, anaphylactic, T-cytotoxicity, and delayed hypersensitivity. The role of each of these immune effector mechanisms in immune responses induced by vaccination against specific infectious agents is the subject of this review.
What is the effector phase of immune response?
At this point, the immune response is in a phase termed “the effector phase.” This term refers to the processes directly involved in effecting protection against the danger in question—pathogen, toxin, or other foreign substance considered by the immune system recognition processes as presenting a danger to the host.
What are effector mechanisms?
The effector mechanisms that operate to eliminate pathogens in an adaptive immune response are essentially identical to those of innate immunity.
What is humoral defense mechanism?
Humoral immunity is also called antibody-mediated immunity. With assistance from helper T cells, B cells will differentiate into plasma B cells that can produce antibodies against a specific antigen. The humoral immune system deals with antigens from pathogens that are freely circulating, or outside the infected cells.
What the two types of tissues that act as effectors?
The muscles are generally divided into two groupings: somatic effectors, which are the body’s striated muscles (such as those found in the arm and back), and autonomic effectors, which are smooth muscles (such as the iris of the eye).
What are receptors for effector functions?
Fc receptors (FcRs) are key immune regulatory receptors connecting the antibody mediated (humoral) immune response to cellular effector functions. Receptors for all classes of immunoglobulins have been identified, including FcγR (IgG), FcεRI (IgE), FcαRI (IgA), FcμR (IgM) and FcδR (IgD).
What tissue is the effector?
An effector is a tissue structure, namely a muscle or gland, that responds to an efferent impulse. An efferent impulse is a biochemical and electrical impulse that travels via nerve fibers away from the central nervous system. The central nervous system is a term for the brain and spinal cord.
What is the possible response of the effector?
Effectors are parts of the body – such as muscles and glands – that produce a response to a detected stimulus. For example: muscle squeezing saliva from the salivary gland. a gland releasing a hormone into the blood.
What do T effector cells do?
Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells in modulating adaptive as well as innate immunity.
What are the two types of effector?