Is Bartonella henselae Gram stain?
Bartonella henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), is a gram-negative, coccobacillus, facultative intracellular bacterium CSD usually presents as a clinical form of benign local lymphadenopathy (LAP) but sometimes it may progress to severe life threatening complications.
What is the characteristics of Bartonella henselae?
Bartonella henselae is an aerobic, oxidase-negative, and slow growing Gram negative rod, slightly curved. It does not have flagella to facilitate its movement; however, there has been evidence of twitching motility. It requires very exact and fastidious conditions to grow in vitro.
What does Bartonella henselae look like?
Bartonella henselae is a small gram-negative baccilus. It is an aerobic organism ~1µm in length and ~ 0.5 µm in diameter, that ocassionaly takes a slightly curved shape. It makes small jerking movements in the fresh state, but has no whips.
How is Bartonella henselae diagnosed?
B. henselae DNA may be detected by PCR or culture of lymph node aspirates or blood, though sensitivity of these methods is not optimal for blood samples. Since B. henselae is a fastidious, slow-growing bacterium, cultures should be held for a minimum of 21 days.
What does Bartonella henselae cause?
Cat scratch disease (CSD), also called cat scratch fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae, which is generally spread to people through cat bites or scratches. Most healthy people do not develop any symptoms, and those with a mild infection usually get better without any treatment.
Is Bartonella Gram positive or negative?
Bartonella species are fastidious, gram-negative bacteria that cause a range of manifestations, including cat scratch disease (CSD), bacillary angiomatosis (BA) and other infections in persons with HIV. Bartonella has also emerged as one of the leading causes of culture-negative endocarditis [1,2].
Is Bartonella henselae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. Like other members of the alphaproteobacteria subdivision, B. henselae is capable of establishing an intracellular lifestyle within eukaryotic cells (3).
What happens if Bartonella goes untreated?
Untreated cases may take months to resolve, and some cases become chronic. Symptoms may include a gradual onset of fever, weakness, headache, joint pain, and/or night sweats. Other symptoms may include lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and/or hepatomegaly.
How do you cure Bartonella henselae?
Bartonella henselae is generally resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, and nafcillin. Doxycycline and rifampin in combination are the preferred medications for treating neuroretinitis.
Is Bartonella henselae fatal?
Cat-scratch disease resulting from Bartonella henselae infection is usually a benign, self-limited process in immunocompetent children. Even the rare cases associated with neurologic manifestations are not generally fatal.
Is Bartonella henselae common?
A feline infected with B. henselae is a common occurrence. Up to half of domestic cats have antibodies to B. henselae, which indicates that they have been previously exposed to these bacteria.
What is the kingdom of Bartonella henselae?
Integrated Taxonomic Information System – Report
|Synonym(s):||Rochalimaea henselae Regnery et al., 1992|
How do you test for Bartonella henselae?
Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease. WS stain, BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.
Is Bartonella henselae a pathogen of cat scratch disease?
Conclusions: Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease. WS stain, BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.
What is the pathophysiology of Bartonella henselae?
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative rod that is the etiologic agent of CSD and is associated with bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-infected individuals. B. henselae is often transmitted by direct inoculation (scratch or bite), and over 80% of cases are in people younger than 21 years old.
What are the symptoms of Bartonella infections?
Bartonella quintana causes trench fever which is a recurrent fever that causes 3–5 febrile episodes. B. henselae and B. quintana can cause bacillary angiomatosis which is a vasculoproliferative disease of the skin.