How does saltwater intrusion affect groundwater?
Sea-level rise, in combination with increased groundwater pumping can increase saltwater intrusion in groundwater aquifers. Saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers can increase treatment costs for drinking water facilities or render groundwater wells unusable.
How does saltwater intrusion affect well water?
Saltwater intrusion decreases freshwater storage in the aquifers, and, in extreme cases, can result in the abandonment of wells. The intrusion of saltwater caused by withdrawals of freshwater from the groundwater system can make the resource unsuitable for use.
What is the cause of saltwater intrusion in groundwater?
Generally, saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers is caused by two mechanisms: Lateral encroachment from the ocean due to excessive water withdrawals from coastal aquifers, or. Upward movement from deeper saline zones due to upconing near coastal discharge/pumping wells.
What is an example of saltwater intrusion?
Probably the most well-studied example of saltwater intrusion occurs in south Florida, where development combined with highly irregular precipitation patterns have stressed local aquifers. The Biscayne aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the Miami metropolitan area.
How does saltwater intrusion affect crops?
Once these nutrients become mobile, they can travel through networks of agricultural ditches into larger coastal water bodies such as tidal creeks and marshes. There, the excess nutrients can cause excess algae growth. When the algae die, they are broken down by bacteria.
How does saltwater intrusion affect the environment?
Salt water intrusion also increases peat decomposition, which in turn decreases the capacity of these soils to sequester carbon, ultimately increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Loss of peat and subsequent land subsistence, further promote inland salt water migration and working land degradation.
How do saltwater intrusions take place?
Seawater intrusion is caused by decreases in groundwater levels or by rises in seawater levels. When you pump out fresh water rapidly, you lower the height of the freshwater in the aquifer forming a cone of depression. The salt water rises 40 feet for every 1 foot of freshwater depression and forms a cone of ascension.
How can we prevent saltwater intrusion?
Best management practices in areas at high risk of saltwater intrusion: Well drilling: Well siting: Avoid drilling in locations immediately adjacent to the coast e.g. within 50 m. Well depth: Avoid drilling excessively deep within areas proximal to the coast.
What is saltwater intrusion and why is it a problem?
Saltwater intrusion, the technical name for the problem, occurs when too much groundwater is pumped from coastal aquifers, thereby upsetting the subterranean balance between inland freshwater and the relentless ocean. When the rate of groundwater pumping increases, the equilibrium shifts.
Where does saltwater intrusion occur?
Saltwater intrusion can naturally occur in coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between groundwater and seawater. Because saline water has a higher mineral content than freshwater, it is denser and has a higher water pressure. As a result, saltwater can push inland beneath the freshwater.
What happens during saltwater intrusion?
As sea levels rise along the coasts, saltwater can move onto the land. Known as saltwater intrusion, this occurs when storm surges or high tides overtop areas low in elevation. It also occurs when saltwater infiltrates freshwater aquifers and raises the groundwater table below the soil surface.